A drug is any substance (other than food that has biological process support) that, once inhaled , injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved beneath the tongue causes a brief physiological (and usually psychological) amendment within the body.
In medicine, a drug may be a chemical substance of familiar structure, aside from a nutrient of a vital dietary ingredient, which, once administered to a living organism, produces a biological impact. A pharmaceutical drug additionally known as medication|a Drugs} or medicine, may be a chemical substance wont to treat, cure, prevent, or diagnose a sickness or to push well-being. historically medication were obtained through extraction from medicative plants, however a lot of recently additionally by organic synthesis. Pharmaceutical medication is also used for a restricted period, or on a daily basis for chronic disorders.
Pharmaceutical medication area unit usually classified into drug classes—groups of connected medication that have similar chemical structures, an equivalent mechanism of action (binding to an equivalent biological target), a connected mode of action, which area unit wont to treat an equivalent sickness. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical organisation (ATC), the foremost wide used drug organisation, assigns medication a singular ATC code, that is AN alphamerical code that assigns it to specific drug categories among the ATC system. Another major organisation is that the Biopharmaceutics organisation. This classifies medication in line with their solubility and porosity or absorption properties.
Psychoactive medication area unit chemical substances that have an effect on the operate of the central system, neutering perception, mood or consciousness. They embrace alcohol, a depressant (and a stimulant in tiny quantities), and also the stimulants vasoconstrictor and alkaloid. These 3 area unit the foremost wide consumed mind-blowing medication worldwide and are thought of recreational medication since they're used for pleasure instead of medicative functions. alternative recreational medication embrace hallucinogens, opiates and amphetamines and a few of those are utilized in religious or non secular settings. Some medication will cause addiction and every one medication will have facet effects. Excessive use of stimulants will promote stimulant mental disease. several recreational medication area unit illicit and international treaties like the one Convention on Narcotic medication exist for the aim of their prohibition.
A medication or medication could be a drug taken to cure or ameliorate Associate in Nursingy symptoms of an health problem or medical condition. the employment may additionally be as medicine that has future edges however doesn't treat any existing or pre-existing diseases or symptoms. Dispensing of medication is commonly regulated by governments into 3 categories—over-the-counter medications, that square measure on the market in pharmacies and supermarkets while not special restrictions; behind-the-counter medicines, that square measure distributed by a caregiver while not having a doctor's prescription, and prescription solely medicines, that should be prescribed by a accredited medical skilled, typically a doc.
In the uk, behind-the-counter medicines square measure referred to as pharmacy medicines which might solely be oversubscribed in registered pharmacies, by or beneath the direction of a caregiver. These medications square measure selected by the letter P on the label. The vary of medicines on the market while not a prescription varies from country to country. Medications square measure usually created by pharmaceutical corporations and square measure usually proprietary to present the developer exclusive rights to provide them. people who aren't proprietary (or with expired patents) square measure referred to as generic medication since they will be created by different corporations while not restrictions or licenses from the patent holder.
Pharmaceutical medication square measure typically categorized into drug categories. a gaggle of medication can share an analogous chemical structure, or have an equivalent mechanism of action, an equivalent connected mode of action or target an equivalent health problem or connected sicknesses. The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system (ATC), the foremost wide used drug system, assigns medication a singular ATC code, that is Associate in Nursing alphamerical code that assigns it to specific drug categories among the ATC system. Another major system is that the Biopharmaceutics system. This teams medication in line with their solubility and porousness or absorption properties.
Some religions, notably ethnic religions square measure based mostly utterly on the employment of sure medication, referred to as entheogens, that square measure principally hallucinogens,—psychedelics, dissociatives, or deliriants. Some medication used as entheogens embody kavakava which might act as a stimulant, a sedative, a euphoriant Associate in Nursingd an anesthetic. The roots of the kavakava plant square measure wont to manufacture a drink that is consumed throughout the cultures of the Pacific.
Some shamans from totally different cultures use entheogens, outlined as "generating the divine within" to attain non secular ecstasy. Amazonian shamans use ayahuasca (yagé) a psychoactive brew for this purpose. Mazatec shamans have an extended and continuous tradition of non secular use of Mexican mint a mind-expanding plant. Its use is to facilitate visionary states of consciousness throughout religious healing sessions.
Silene undulata is regarded by the Xhosa individuals as a sacred plant Associate in Nursingd used as an entheogen. Its root is historically wont to induce vivid (and in line with the Xhosa, prophetic) lucid dreams throughout the initiation method of shamans, classifying it a present oneirogen kind of like the a lot of well-known dream herb Calea ternifolia.
Peyote atiny low spineless succulent has been a serious supply of psychedelic psychedelic drug and has in all probability been employed by Native Americans for a minimum of 5 thousand years. Most psychedelic drug is currently obtained from many species of columnar cacti specially from San Pedro and not from the vulnerable peyote.
The entheogenic use of cannabis has conjointly been wide practiced for hundreds of years. Rastafari use marijuana (ganja) as a religious ceremony in their non secular ceremonies.
Psychedelic mushrooms (psilocybin mushrooms), usually referred to as magic mushrooms or shrooms have conjointly long been used as entheogens.
Nootropics, conjointly usually cited as "smart drugs", square measure medication that square measure claimed to enhance human psychological feature skills. Nootropics square measure wont to improve memory, concentration, thought, mood, learning, and lots of different things. Some nootropics square measure currently commencing to be wont to treat sure diseases like attention-deficit upset disorder, brain disorder, and Alzheimer's. they're conjointly usually wont to regain brain perform lost throughout aging.
Other medication referred to as designer medication square measure created. Associate in Nursing early example of what these days would be tagged a 'designer drug' was street drug, that was synthesised from ergot. different examples embody analogs of performance-enhancing medication like designer steroids taken to enhance physical capabilities and these square measure typically used (legally or not) for this purpose, usually by skilled athletes. different designer medication mimic the consequences of mind-expanding medication. Since the late Nineteen Nineties there has been the identification of the many of those synthesised medication. In Japan and therefore the uk this has spurred the addition of the many designer medication into a more moderen category of controlled substances referred to as a short lived category drug.
Synthetic cannabinoids are created for a extended amount of your time and square measure utilized in the psychoactive drug artificial cannabis.